A Driving Force Timeline

  1. Eveline Marie Alexander (1821-1906)


    Lady Eveline Marie Alexander, artist, b.1821, Nantes, France (d.1906 Isle of Wight, Hampshire, England).

  1. Clémence van den Broeck (1843-1922)


    Clémence van den Broeck, artist, b. 1843, Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, Belgium (d.1922, Ukkel, Belguim).

  1. Mildred Peel (1856-1920)


    Mildred Peel, artist, b.1856, London, Ontario (d.1920, Santa Barbara, California).

  2. Mary Ella Dignam (1857-1938)


    Mary Ella Dignam, artist, b.1857, Port Burwell, Ontario (d.1938, Toronto, Ontario).

  3. Caroline Farncomb (1859-1951)


    Caroline Farncomb, artist, b.1859, Newcastle, Ontario (d.1951, London, Ontario).

  1. Emily Mary Gunn Fried (c.1862-1953)


    Emily Mary Gunn Fried, artist and educator,
    c.1862, London, Ontario
    (d.1953, Los Angeles, California).

  2. Florence Carlyle (1864-1923)


    Florence Carlyle, artist, b.1864, Galt, Ontario (d.1923, Crowborough, Sussex, England).

  3. Grace Blackburn (1865-1928)


    Victoria Grace Blackburn, art supporter, journalist, writer, and educator, b.1865, Quebec (d.1928, London, Ontario).

  4. CANADA: Dr. Emily Stowe, The First Woman to Practice Medicine in Canada


    After earning her degree from the New York Medical College for Women, Dr. Emily Stowe becomes the first woman to practice medicine in Canada. She receives her medical license in 1880.

  5. CANADA: Confederation

  1. Mary B. Sawtelle (1871-1954)


    Mary B. Sawtelle, artist, b.1871, Washington, D.C. (d. 1954, London, Ontario).

  2. Wilhelmina McIntosh (1871-1940)


    Wilhelmina Morris McIntosh, art supporter and collector, b. circa 1871, Euphemia Township, Lambton County (d.1940, London, Ontario).

  3. Eva Bradshaw (1871-1938)


    Eva Bradshaw, artist and educator, b.1871, London, Ontario (d.1938, London, Ontario).

  4. The Ontario Society of Artists is Formed

  5. CANADA: Esther Westmacott, the First Female Artist to Become a Member of the Ontario Society of Artists


    Esther Westmacott is the first female artist to become a member of the Ontario Society of Artists.

  6. CANADA: Dr. Jennie Trout, The First Canadian Woman to Become a Licensed Physician


    Dr. Jennie Trout (1841-1921) graduates from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. After passing the registration exam in Ontario that same year, she becomes the first female licensed physician in Canada.

  7. Elsie Perrin Williams (1878-1934)


    Elsie Perrin Williams, b.1878, London, Ontario (d.1934, London, Ontario).

  8. CANADA: The Founding of the University of Western Ontario (Western University)


    Western University was founded as the Western University of London Ontario in 1878, and was renamed the University of Western Ontario in 1923. In 2012, the university became known as “Western University,” although its legal name is still “The University of Western Ontario.”

  1. CANADA: Charlotte Schreiber, the First Female Artist to be Elected an Academician of the Royal Academy (RCA)


    Charlotte Schreiber (1834-1922), a founding member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, is the first female artist to be elected to academician status (RCA). It would be over 50 years until the next woman, Marion Long (1882-1970), reached the same level in 1933.

  2. CANADA: The Royal Canadian Academy of Arts is Formed


    The Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, one of Canada’s most respected art associations, is formed. The academy had two levels of membership, Associate of the Royal Canadian Academy (ARCA) and Royal Canadian Academician (RCA). Each level was reached by election.

  3. CANADA: Frances Jones Bannerman, the First Female Artist to be Elected an Associate of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (ARCA)


    Frances Bannerman (1855-1940) becomes the first female artist elected an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (ARCA). She would not reach the level of academician (RCA). Bannerman was also the first woman elected to the academy in any capacity after founding member Charlotte Schreiber.

  4. Euphemia Woolverton (1882-1959)


    Euphemia “Effie” Woolverton, artist, b.1882, London, Ontario (d.1959, London, Ontario).

  5. CANADA: Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen, The First Woman to Receive a Medical Degree from a Canadian University


    Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen (the daughter of Dr. Emily Stowe) becomes the first woman to receive a medical degree from a Canadian university when she graduates from the Toronto School of Medicine, Victoria College.

  6. Mary Healey (1885-1923)


    Mary Healey, artist, b.1885, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England (d.1923, London, Ontario).

  7. LONDON, ONTARIO: The Western School of Art and Design now the London Art School


    The Western School of Art and Design changes it name to the London Art School. The school would operate another 5 years before closing its doors in 1903.

  8. Kate Taylor Cumming (1889-1971)


    Kate Taylor Cumming, artist, b.1889, Ingersoll, Ontario (d.1971, London, Ontario).

  1. Dorothy (Betts) Seely-Smith (1890-1961)


    Dorothy (Betts) Seely-Smith, artist, b.1890, London, Ontario (d.1961, Victoria, British Columbia).

  2. CANADA: Mary Ella Dignam Establishes the Women's Art Club (Toronto)


    Mary Ella Dignam formally establishes the Women’s Art Club (of Toronto). The club developed from a smaller group formed in 1887 (and which held an exhibition that same year).  It would become the Women’s Art Association of Canada in 1892.

  3. LONDON, ONTARIO: The Women's Art Club of London is Formed


    The Women’s Art Club of London was founded in 1892 or 1893. The club was a branch of the Woman’s Art Association of Canada (WAAC) from 1894 to 1896, when it became a separate organization known as the WAC of London. The WAC was active until World War One.


  4. CANADA: The Women's Art Club becomes the Women’s Art Association of Canada


    The Women’s Art Club (of Toronto), founded by Mary Ella Dignam in 1890, is incorporated under its new name, the Women’s Art Association of Canada (WAAC).

  5. Dorothy Emery (1894?-1988)


    Dorothy Emery, artist and educator, (b.1894?, d.1988, London, Ontario).

  6. Alice MacKenzie (1898-1989)


    Alice MacKenzie, artist, b. 1898, Fort Riley, Kansas (d. 1989, Toronto, Ontario).


  1. WORLD: Mary Ella Dignam Organizes an International Exhibition of Women's Art


    Mary Ella Dignam was among the coordinators of the first significant exhibition of the Women International Art Club (WIAC). Two hundred and thirty-five (235) works, all by women artists, were showcased.

  2. CANADA: Emma Sophia Baker, The First Woman to Earn a Ph.D at a Canadian University


    Psychologist Emma Sophia Baker (1856-1943) graduates from the University of Toronto with a Ph.D in Philosophy, becoming the first woman to earn a Ph.D. from a Canadian University, and the first person to receive a Ph.D in Philosophy from the University of Toronto.

  3. Emily M. Gunn Fried Exhibits Painting at the Paris Salon


    Emily Mary Gunn Fried (c.1862-1953) exhibits a painting at the Paris Salon. At the time, she was one of only two Londoners – and was possibly one of the first Canadian women – to have done so.

  4. Lenore Crawford (1909-1983)


    Lenore Crawford, art critic, b. 909, London, Ontario (d. 1983, London, Ontario).

  1. Silvia Clarke (1911-1994)


    Silvia Clarke, artist, b.1911, Cavendish, Suffolk, England (d.1994, London, Ontario).

  2. LONDON, ONTARIO: London's First Art Gallery


    London, Ontario’s first art gallery opens in September 1912 in Queen’s Park. This gallery only operated in the summer months due to a lack of heating.

  3. Josephine Wilcox (1913-2010)


    Josephine Wilcox, artist, b,1913, Strathroy?, Ontario (d.2010, London, Ontario).

  4. Marjorie Blackburn (1913-1993)


    Marjorie Blackburn, art supporter, b.1913, Strathroy, Ontario (d.1993 London, Ontario).

  5. Flora Douglas ('Dougie') Betts (1914-2008)


    Flora Douglas (“Dougie”) Betts, artist and educator, b.1914, Belleville, Ontario (d.2008).

  6. Irene Dewdney (1914-1999)


    Irene Dewdey, art supporter and art therapist, b.1914, Medicine Hat, Alberta (d.1999, London, Ontario)

  7. WORLD: World War One Begins


    World War One (1914-1918) begins.

  8. Doris Murray (1916-1984)


    Doris Murray, artist, b.1916, Princeton, New Jersey (d.1984, London, Ontario).

  9. Kathleen Hart (1916-2012)


    Kathleen Hart Ellis, artist, b.1916, Byron, Ontario (d.2012, Strathroy, Ontario).

  10. WORLD: World War One Ends


    World War One (1914-1918) ends.

  1. Shirley Andreae (1921-2000)


    Shirley Andreae, art supporter, b.1921, Montreal, Quebec (d.2000, London, Ontario).

  2. Daisy Bailey (1921-1972)


    Daisy Bailey, artist and educator, b.1921, Toronto, Ontario (d.1972, London, Ontario?).

  3. Charlotte Brainerd (1921-1995)


    Charlotte Brainerd, artist, b.1921, Rice Lake, Wisconsin (d.1995, Victoria, British Columbia).

  4. Barbara Jackson (1922-2011)


    Barbara Jackson, artist, b.1922, London, Ontario (d.2011, Toronto, Ontario).

  5. Anne Marsh Evans (1923-2015)


    Anne Marsh Evans, artist, b.1923, Nottingham, England (d.2015, Meaford, Ontario).

  6. Doreen Curry (1924-2017)


    Doreen Curry, art supporter, collector, and donor, b.1924, Orangeville, Ontario, (d.2017, London, Ontario)

  7. Shirley Brickenden (1924-2018)


    Shirley Brickenden, artist, b.1924, Montreal, Quebec (d.2018, Toronto, Ontario).

  8. Beryl Ivey (1924-2007)


    Beryl Ivey, art supporter and donor, b.1924, Chatham, Ontario (d.2007, Toronto, Ontario).

  9. Sigrid Lochner (1925-2015)


    Sigrid Lochner, artist, b.1925, Dresden, Germany
    (d.2015, London, Ontario).

  10. LONDON, ONTARIO: The Art Department at H.B. Beal Secondary School is Formed


    H.B. Secondary School (at the time called the London Technical and Commercial High School) forms its art department.

  11. Rae Davis (1927-2006)


    Rae Davis, artist, b.1927, Plainfield, New Jersey (d.2006, Toronto, Ontario).

  12. Anna P. Baker (1928-1985)


    Anna P. Baker, artist, b.1928, London, Ontario (d.1985, Kingston, Ontario).

  13. Connie Jefferess (1929-2018)


    Connie Jefferess, artist and educator, b.1929, London, Ontario (d.2018. London, Ontario).

  14. Paddy Gunn O'Brien (1929-2012)


    Paddy (Patricia) Gunn O’Brien, artist, b. 1929, Carshalton, England (d.2012, London, Ontario).

  15. Margot Ariss (1929-2013)


    Margot Ariss, artist, b.1929, Belleville, Ontario (d.2013 London, Ontario).

  1. Nancy Geddes Poole (b.1930)


    Nancy Geddes Poole, art supporter, art dealer, gallery administrator, volunteer, and donor, b.1930, London, Ontario.

  2. Eve Apostoll (1931-1995)


    Eve Apostoll, artist and educator, b.1931, Detroit, Michigan (d.1995, London, Ontario).

  3. CANADA: Marion Long, the Second Female Artist to be Elected an Academician of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (RCA)


    Marion Long (1882-1970) becomes the second female artist elected an academician of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (RCA). She had been elected an associate member (ARCA) in 1922.

  4. Sue Boone (b.1934)


    Sue Boone, artist, b.1934, London, Ontario.

  5. Gillian Saward (1934-1983)


    Gillian Saward, artist, b.1934, Maidstone, England (d.1983, Toronto, Ontario).

  6. Bernice Vincent (1934-2016)


    Bernice Vincent, artist, b.1934, Woodstock, Ontario (d.2016, London, Ontario).

  7. Doreen Lindsay (b.1934)


    Doreen Lindsay, artist, educator, and curator, b.1934, Tillsonburg, Ontario.

  8. Diana C. Coates (b.1939)


    Diana C. Coates, art supporter, art historian, community organizer, and information professional, b.1939, Pickering, Ontario.

  9. WORLD: World War Two Begins


    World War Two (1939-1945) begins.

  1. LONDON, ONTARIO: London First Permanent Art Gallery


    Built using funds from a bequest by Elsie Perrin Williams (1878-1934), the Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Art Gallery and Museum (the old Central Library at 305 Queen’s Avenue) opens. The building was London, Ontario’s first permanent art gallery space.

  2. Elsie P. Williams: London Library and Art Gallery


    Funds from a bequest by Elsie Perrin Williams (1878-1934) are used to build the Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Art Gallery and Museum (The old Central Library at 305 Queen’s Avenue), London, Ontario’s first permanent art gallery.



  3. Bonnie Parkinson (b.1941)


    Bonnie Parkinson, artist, fashion artist, and educator, b. 1941, London, Ontario.

  4. Thelma Rosner (b.1941)


    Thelma Rosner, artist and educator, b.1941, Toronto, Ontario.

  5. Madeline Lennon (b.1942)


    Madeline Lennon, art supporter, educator, author, and curator, b.1942, New York, New York.

  6. LONDON, ONTARIO: McIntosh Gallery Opens


    The McIntosh Gallery was the first art gallery to be established in a Canadian university. The building was officially opened on June 26, 1942 with a display of 31 paintings by Canadian war artists from the collection of the National Gallery of Canada. The gallery was built with a substantial bequest from the Estate of Wilhelmina Morris McIntosh in the memory of her husband,  J. Gordon McIntosh. a former Winnipeg businessman.

  7. Antje Laidler (b.1943)


    Antje Laidler, artist, b.1943, Schwerin, Germany.

  8. Flora Tripp (1943-2015)


    Flora Tripp, art supporter, collector, and donor, b.1943, Ottawa, Ontario (d.2015, London, Ontario).

  9. Johnnene Maddison (b.1943)


    Johnnene Maddison, artist, educator, and curator, b.1943, Detroit, Michigan.

  10. Agneta Dolman (b.1944)


    Agneta Dolman, artist and educator, b.1944, Stockholm, Sweden.

  11. LONDON, ONTARIO: H.B. Beal Secondary School Launches its Special Arts Programme


    H.B. Beal Secondary School (then known as H.B. Beal Technical and High School) launches its Special Arts programme.

  12. WORLD: World War Two Ends


    World War Two (1939-1945) ends.

  13. Arlene Kennedy (b.1948)


    Arlene Kennedy, art supporter, educator, and gallery administrator, b.1948, Toronto, Ontario.

  14. Brenda MacEachern (1948-2012)


    Brenda MacEachern, art supporter and visual resources curator, b.1948, Toronto, Ontario (d.2012, London, Ontario).

  15. Jamelie Hassan (b.1948)


    Jamelie Hassan, artist, b.1948, London, Ontario.

  16. Janice Andreae (b.1949)


    Janice Andreae, artist, writer, and art critic, b.1949, Guelph, Ontario.

  17. kerry ferris (1949-2016)


    kerry ferris, artist, b.1949, London, Ontario (d.2016, London, Ontario).

  18. Margaret Rossiter (b.1949)


    Margaret Rossiter, artist, b.1949. London, Ontario.

  19. Catherine Morrisey (b.1949)


    Catherine Morrisey, artist, b.1949, Brampton, Ontario.

  1. Wanda Sawicki (b.1951)


    Wanda Sawicki, artist, writer, and art therapist, b.1951, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

  2. Colette Urban (1952-2013)


    Colette Urban, artist, b.1952, Denver, Colorado (d.2013, McIvers, Newfoundland).

  3. Sophie Skaith (b.1952)


    Sophie Skaith, art supporter, b.1952, Toronto, Ontario.

  4. Rosemary Sloot (b.1952)


    Rosemary Sloot, artist, b.1952, Simcoe, Ontario.

  5. Fern Helfand (b.1952)


    Fern Helfand, artist, b.1952, Toronto, Ontario.

  6. Lynn Donoghue (1953-2003)


    Lynn Donoghue, artist, b.1953, Red Lake, Ontario (d.2003, Toronto, Ontario).

  7. Kirtley Jarvis (b.1953)


    Kirtley Jarvis, artist, b.1953, Balmertown, Ontario.

  8. Shelley Niro (b.1954)


    Shelley Niro, artist, b.1954, Niagara Falls, New York.

  9. dlmorrow (b.1956)


    dlmorrow (Diane Lynn Morrow), artist, b.1956, Toronto, Ontario.

  10. Josy Britton (b.1956)


    Josy Britton, artist, b.1956.

  11. Jan Shepherd McKee (b.1956)


    Jan Shepherd McKee, artist, b.1956.

  12. LONDON, ONTARIO: The London Art Gallery Establishes a Women's Committee


    Eleanor Somerville and Josephine Wilcox organized and launched the London Art Gallery’s Women’s Committee. Among the initial 20 members were Flora Douglas (“Dougie”) Betts, Shirley Brickenden, Lenore Crawford, Mackie Cryderman, Nancy Geddes Poole, and Elizabeth “Woody” Moore.


  13. Sara Hartland-Rowe (b.1958)


    Sara Hartland-Rowe, artist, b.1958.

  14. Donna Andreychuk (b.1959)


    Donna Andreychuk, artist, b.1959, Kenilworth, Ontario.

  1. Kelly Greene (b.1962)


    Kelly Greene, artist, b.1962, Buffalo, New York.

  2. Kelly Wood (b.1962)


    Kelly Wood, artist and educator, b.1962 Toronto, Ontario.

  3. Tracy Root (b.1964)


    Tracy Root, artist, b.1964, Shropshire, England.

  4. CANADA: The Art Gallery of Toronto Becomes the The Art Gallery of Ontario

  5. LONDON, ONTARIO: The 20/20 Gallery Opens


    The 20/20 Gallery, a privately run, not-for-profit art gallery in London, Ontario opens. The founding members were Greg Curnoe, Jack Chambers, George Cole, John Davis, Rae Davis, Murray Favro, Hugh MacPherson, Geoffery Rans, Goldie Rans, Gerald Trottier, and Dr. Ross Woodman. The gallery, which exhibited art of many disciplines, including paintings, theatre, poetry, dance, film, and music, operated until 1970.



  6. CANADA: Jean Sutherland Boggs, The First Female Director of a National Art Gallery


    Jean Sutherland Boggs (1922-2014) is named Director of the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, and becomes the first woman globally to achieve such a position.

  7. Sylvia Curtis-Norcross (b.1967)


    Sylvia Curtis-Norcross, writer and educator,
    b. 1967.

  8. Melanie Townsend (1968-2018)


    Melanie Townsend, curator, b.1968, Windsor, Ontario (d.2018, London, Ontario).

  9. Anna P. Baker: Western University's Alumni Association Holds Its First Solo Art Exhibition


    Anna P. Baker’s work is showcased in the Western University Alumni Association’s first art exhibition to focus on a single artist.

  10. Jill Price (b.1969)


    Jill Price, artist, curator, and educator, b. 1969, Toronto, Ontario.

  11. LONDON, ONTARIO: London S.W.17 at the Rothman Gallery, Stratford, Ontario


    The exhibition London S.W.17, is organized by Nancy Geddes Poole at the Rothman Gallery in Stratford, Ontario. The show features works completed by 17 London Artists in the Spring and Winter (“S.W.”) of 1969: Herb Ariss, Margot Ariss, Daisy Bailey, John Boyle, Anne Brown, Jack Chambers, Tom Coulter, Paterson Ewen, Robert Fones, Connie Jefferess, William Johnson, James Kemp, Ron Martin, Walter Redinger, Guérite Steinbacher, Tony Urquhart, and Edward Zelenak.

  1. LONDON, ONTARIO: The 20/20 Gallery Closes


    London’s 20/20 Gallery, which opened in 1966, closes.

  2. CANADA: Joyce Wieland, The National Gallery of Canada Holds its First Solo Art Exhibition of Work by a Living Female Canadian Artist


    Joyce Wieland’s (1931-1998) 1971 exhibition is the first solo exhibition featuring the work of a living female Canadian artist to be held at the National Gallery of Canada.

  3. Ko Bhamra (b.1972)


    Ko Bhamra, artist, b.1972, Punjab, India.

  4. LONDON, ONTARIO: London Holds its First Exhibition to Feature Only Work by Women Artists


    In recognition of International Women’s Year (as 1975 was declared by the United Nations), London, Ontario holds an exhibition in the City Centre featuring only the work of women artists. Eighteen (18) local artists were represented: Margot Ariss, Bonnie Bauman, Beckie Burke, Sylvia Christie, Raimonde Demopoulos, Lynn Donaghue, Guérite Fera, kerry ferris, Jamelie Hassan, Dorene Inglis, Connie Jefferess, Jeanine Lodge, Verne Lougheed. Diane Robinson, Vivian L. Sturdee, Bernice Vincent, Carole Wright, and Marcia Ruiz Wilson.

  5. Kim Neudorf (b.1977)


    Kim Neudorf, artist, b.1977, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

  1. LONDON, ONTARIO: London Regional Art Gallery is Established


    London’s art gallery shifts from its original location at the Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Building (the old Central Library) to a new location at the Forks of the Thames River (421 Ridout Street North), and becomes known as the London Regional Art Gallery (LRAG).


  2. Gillian Saward: McIntosh Gallery Creates the Gillian Saward Memorial Fund


    McIntosh Gallery creates the Gillian Saward Memorial Fund, following the bestowal by the Saward family of a selection of artwork by Gillian Saward (1934-1983) along with related materials, including correspondence and journals, to the gallery.

  3. Angie Quick (b.1989)


    Angie Quick, artist, b. 1989.

  4. LONDON, ONTARIO: The London Regional Art and Historical Museums


    The London Public Library’s museum division and the London Regional Art Gallery combine, forming the London Regional Art and Historical Museums (LRAHM).


  1. Victoria Stasiuk


    Victoria Stasiuk is Co-Director of Forest City Gallery.

  1. LONDON, ONTARIO: The London Regional Art Gallery and Historical Museums becomes Museum London


    The London Regional Art and Historical Museums (LRAHM) changes its name to Museum London.

  2. LONDON, ONTARIO: The London Central Library moves from the Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Building


    The Central branch of the London Public Library relocates from the Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Art Gallery and Museum building to its current location at 251 Dundas Street.